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How the Chinese Defended Against the Mongols - Medieval DOCUMENTARY
- Published on Dec 21, 2022 veröffentlicht
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The Kings and Generals animated historical documentary series on Mongol History continues with a video explaining how the Chinese defended against the Mongols. In our previous episode we discussed the European defence against the Mongol invasions ( • How the Europeans... ) and how the Mamluks defended against them ( • How the Mamluks D... ).
Our podcast on Mongol history - kingsandgenerals.libsyn.com/2...
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The video was made by Galang Pinandita, while the script was developed by Jack Wilson - The Jackmeister. Check out his channel dedicated to the history of the Mongols: / @thejackmeistermo... . This video was narrated by Officially Devin ( / @offydgg & / @gameworldnarratives )
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#Documentary #Mongols #Chinese
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@Tahwoncha Ray lolno
@Kings and Generals Best reply.
Reconquest of xinjiang by zuo zhongtang(左宗棠) was fascinating history involving numerous forces including Russian. The tactics used in the battle were absolute genius. You might be interested to make series of zuo zhongtang from Taiping rebellion to conquest of xinjiang. He deliberately borrowed money from English banks which sway Britain to support his campaign to make sure he could win and pay back the loans.
Qing dynasty success of controlling mongols also depended on Tibetan buddhism which absorbed large number of single men, the troublemakers. Famous qianlong emperor quote: One tibetan temple worths 100 thousands soldiers.
@MicaiahBaron fr lol
Siege of Diaoyu Castle was one of the most epic sieges of all time, lasting decades and filled with very desperate actions by both sides. Strategically positioned at where the Mongols have to pass during an invasion, it guards the fate of the entire Song dynasty.
The Diaoyu castle was more like a massive series of fortifications built on mountainous cliffs that divides a city into multiple layers of defense in depth positions, with highway system connecting every sector for quick reinforcements.
The defense has different levels - walls were built by the cliff, leaving very little ground to hold for enemy charging up to the walls, while the other side of the wall was flat ground so the defenders can quickly reinforce an area without needing to mount the walls. The entrances were artificially built onto sides of cliffs that can be removed during a siege and the entire complex was supported by a very well guarded military harbor that can hold hundreds of warships and supply ships.
The show paints Jia Sidao as some notable Song general but so many Song generals outshine him. For example:
1. Meng Gong who threw back the Mongol invasion attempt of 1235 by destroying 24 Mongol camps along the Yangtze river, with his counteroffensives retaking XianFang, Xinyang, and Kuizhou
2. Dugao who defeated the Mongols in Luzhou
3. Wang Jian, Yu Jie, Cao Shixiong who improved the Mountain Fortresses built by Meng Gong and Yu Jie and together repelled the second Mongol invasion attempt of 1258
4. Xiang Shibi, who also managed to defeat the Mongols on multiple occasions.
And then you get Jia Sidao, who was more of a politician, known for persecuting capable generals like Cao Shixiong and Xiang Shibi as well as losing the battle of Dingjia despite having more men and ships.
I visited there years ago, at the time it advertised as 'still no single foreign visitor ever comes here'....
also saved europe from certain destruction (when hungary has not rebuilt their castles and the european armies were anhilated) because the death of mongke mean it is necessary for all mongolian armies to gather to mongolia and reelect the leader, thus forcing batu khan and subutais army to retreat from hungary
Frankly speaking, there weren't many capable Jin and Song generals to speak of during the Mongol invasion; I only recall Wanyan Chenheshang, Meng Gong, Du Gao, and Lu Wenhuan, even the Mongol side had more defected and very capable China generals like Shi Tianze and Zhang Hongfan. I think that was the fate for every declining dynasty, during the declining stage of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty, they only had about two capable generals: Wang Baobao and Chen Youding, whereas the Ming side had numerous capable officers like Fu Youde, Xu Da, Chang Yuchun, Lan Yu, Wang Bi, and so on.
Same that with the Romans and the Germanic barbarians. People don't remember the centuries of them standing against multiple invasion attempts. They remember that traumatic moment in which the conquerors finally succeeded.
@Dan Hobart Why? The Romans employed similar tactics against the Germanic tribesmen. They divided and conquered or kept them squabbling while establishing a frontier system with Legionary forts quickly responding to any big attempts to cross Roman borders.
The Empire unraveled when the tribes almost simultaneously penetrated the entire Rhine and Danube frontier after being pushed by the Huns- the ancestors of the Mongols. The Romans did mount significant resistance and even defeated the Hun leader Attila in open battle- the first to ever do so- but were ultimately destroyed by the court intrigue and severe corruption. It is to be noted that the Eastern half of the Empire stood strong, however, and saw a period of immense economic growth becoming the wealthiest realm in the world for the next two centuries. As rich and strong as the Chinese in the far east.
@Dan Hobart lmfao ok o great knowledgeable one. Pls enlighten all of us instead of acting all haughty. If you actually do have a point which I highly doubt.
@Zippy Parakeet I think you should ignore him he probably a troll
@Dan Hobart Plz share and illuminate us poor uneducated plebs with your far insight
Pretty sure Dan meant that most people do not forget the centuries of success - Johnny's comment is like presenting something commonly accepted as an unpopular opinion.
The reason why the Han dynasty was able to defeat the Xiognu was because they fought the way nomads fight, on horseback. But as the Song Dynasty had lost access to north China Plains due to the Jurchens, they could not respond in the same way against the Mongols. But even so they managed to resist the Mongols for decades and even managed to kill Mongke Khan leading to the fragmentation of the Mongol empire.
True. the real reason is that Song dynasty has lost control of the great wall and the mountains on which the walls are built. Song hence lacks the habitant for war horses.
@Jimmy Guo Song never controlled Border zone of China and Steppe or that mountain area where the Great Wall was later built. Liao Dynasty was established first and controlled that. Song only controlled southern parts of Great Plain, (not even as far as Beijing) which was some horse producing lands, that were all lost when the Jurchen came. Song also used to import horses from Tangut Xi Xia which became harder after the Jurchen invasion
No most of the Han were mounted infantry.
@The Jackmeister: Mongol History
The Great Wall is impressive but it’s kinda stupid. Anyone can mine a tunnel a wall or take it down with tools and towers
@The Jackmeister: Mongol History Hello Jackmeister. I have a rather unrelated question but still hope that you'll answer. Were the Bohai (Balhae) people more related to the Tungusic peoples (Jurchen) or Koreans?
"You men! You must visit each of the outlying tribes. You must convince as many as you can to join our glorious army! But beware the Kara Khitai, they are without honor." - Genghis Khan
Kara means dark in Turkish there is also a other group called Kara they called Kara Tatar they switched to Timur against Bayezid not gonna blame them
this sounds familiar... :D
Age of Empires 2: Age of Kings Campaign: Genghis Khan: 1. Crucible.
You have to wait until Genghis Khan's Horde went over, then Genghis Khan stopped a while talking that phrase.
After his few units changed ownership into your units, you have objectives to win the campaign level: Each time you visited each tribes, you have certain tasks to do. But the Kara Khitai has few armies on few points (Mangonels, and few Cavalry Archers + Watch Towers).
Even I played since original CD 1999 AoK, I played AoK since 2009 when I was still 4. And now I'm 17. I want to get DE for Christmas gift but idk how to convince my parents.
I always started that campaign with collecting 20 sheep lol
@Tatar Cavalry Kara means black/dark in Mongolian not only in turkish
The Tang Dynasty was a powerful military empire that ruled many ethnic groups, but after a large-scale military rebellion, the central government gradually lost control of the localities, and the whole country was ruled by many warlords. The rulers of Xixia and Liao, as ethnic minorities, were the first warlords to break away from the Tang Empire and establish their own state. Later, Han warlords also established their own countries one after another, and these countries were called "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms". But the newly established dynasty still faced the threat of military rebellion, which changed five times in fifty years. After the founding emperor of the Song Dynasty launched a military coup to seize power, the most important issue he considered was how to prevent himself from becoming a victim of the next military coup, and he carried out reforms to achieve absolute control over the army. But the reforms severely weakened the combat effectiveness of the army . After 25 years of war, the richer Song Dynasty failed to eliminate the Liao Dynasty , and even lost the war against the Liao , so the two countries signed an alliance to achieve a century-long peace. The Liao was thus able to devote its main energy to the control of the Mongol and Jurchen tribes. The Jurchens took the opportunity to rise to establish the Jin Dynasty during the Liao civil strife, and formed an alliance with the Song to destroy the Liao . The Jin was busy with the war in the south and the continuous civil strife in the country, which created a power vacuum in the grasslands and led to the rise of the Mongolian.
Tanxiang(Xixia) never break away from Tang since they don't exist until the Song Dynasty. Liao only broke away when Tang collapse. Tactically speaking , Lao was not part of Tan, more like a Vassel.
Also Liao IS THE Mongol. The Golden family of Mongol was one of the Great Nobles of the Liao. That why Mongol took over Western Lao easily because they are the same clan and why Jurchen and Mongol hated each other.
Because the Song dynasty focused on central government power by abolishing regional Jiedushi(governors or generals) and placing 600,000 troops in the capitals. Military generals can threaten an emperor or cause rebellions by using their troops. In a Neo-Confucianism regime, whole military forces were dominated by Scholar-official(士大夫) and separated authority to block treason.
Putin is leading Russia to similar situation of Song dynasty considering they couldn't blitzkrieg Ukraine before Nato reacted.
Ya know what I will become a channel member, I've been here since wayyy back in the beginning and seeing you guys grow, evolve, and improve over the years has shown to me a level of passion and dedication I rarely see in youtube channels and you have more than earned the support so you don't need to rely on sponsorships
It is worth it
Yep. Next paycheck I'll become a member, think I've been watching since '14
Well worth it.
100% not true video! In the fact Jin people are not 🇹🇼🇨🇳Chinese they are Manjur people and also Mongols are not today’s 🇲🇳Halha people they are Mangel ( forever nation) in Turkek Kazakh’s🇰🇿 people because the Naimans, Jalaiers, Kerrys and yaks,konerats, are not Halha 🇲🇳people they are 🇰🇿Kazakh tribes!
Another beautiful documentary, as I can happily say is what is now expected from Kings and Generals.
It is your channel that is the reason I have furthered my own knowledge on various history topics over the past years. Putting history into a format with voice and images really helps to make a complex topic more interesting, and this has definitely led to my own knowledge on various time periods in history.
For this, you have my utmost respect and gratitude.
Glad to be back as a member! Love the quality and hope you guys can continue producing more wonderful free content for everyone to watch!
@Tahwoncha Ray you are watching it for free, right? It is free content.
This was awesome, keep up the China content please! Thanks for explaining Liao/Jin/Song relations, I always found that a bit confusing. Fantastic work guys :)
Central Asia and Mongolia by extension are areas I would like to learn more about. Thank you for this video! I look forward to more in the future!
Merry Christmas out there everybody! ✝️🎄
Thanks and Merry Christmas for you too 😄❤
Check out some books written by Christopher Beckwith, best writer I've found on these topics.
that's good to lift the spirits for Taiwan invasion👍 👍 👍
Merry Christmas as well!
Merry Christmas, and may Tengri be with you. 😄
Cette chaîne m'a interressé à l'Histoire mongole. Vous avez fait des séries géniales sur les conquêtes musulmanes, celles d'Alexandre , celles de Gengis. Je vous suis en activant la traduction des sous-titres. Merci beaucoup !
Id love to see more on medievel Chinese military history
Anyway good channel or links?
@Muhammad M thanks
@Deadmund Vader He's great but I cannot remember if he delves into some of the nitty-gritty details of things like military tactics and organization. Definitely check out Cool History Bro but keep looking around as well. A youtuber called Foojer has a video called "3000 years of Chinese infantry", it's a great look at the evolution of military equipment across the Dynasties.
I hope they don't do another broad topic video like that. They screwed up another video called "Earliest Chinese armies" with massive amounts of inaccuracies and overgeneralizations. This channel's better videos focuses on a narrow topic/narrower timeperiod.
Long time fan, I'm personally cool with you guys having sponsors since you deserve the most money you can get. Thanks for always making amazing videos.
Thanks so much for this history lesson! I learned so much and it is so fascinating! Keep up the great work! Happy New Year!
Jin dynasty (1115-1234) is not considered as China among most of the Chinese. They think the dynasty is a foreign invader and consider that Sony Dynasty is the real China.
@Wang Dibo With all due respect to Chinese, I thought the concept of Zhonghua Minzu covers not only the Han, but all 56 peoples. So aren't northern semi-nomad dynasties such as Liao and Jin considered part of Chinese history? History of Liao and Jin are among the Twenty-Four Histories.
@Younggyun Choi Zhonghua Minzu was invented in 20th Century by Liang Qichao. In the ancient China, the word did not exist. Meanwhile, most of the Chinese do not know the Twenty-Four Histories. These books are official history books in different dynasties, and most the Chinese only know Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. Even many Chinese are not aware of Jin Dynasties.
Besides, I remember that there were many TV Dramas and movies about Qing Dynasties in China twenty years ago. However it is difficult to see these TV dramas and movies now because many Chinese audiences do not like them. They consider that Qing Dynasty really belongs to China because it conquer the whole China. But Han Chinese were conquered and massacred by Manchu people in this dynasty, like Yangzhou massacre. Since Liao and Jin did not conquer the whole China, many Chinese people do not think they are real China. Also, Tencent video broadcasted a TV drama whose name is The Legend of Xiao Chuo in 2020. The drama is about Liao Dynasty. But the drama is not popular and a TV drama that is called A Dream of Splendor about Song Dynasty in Tencent Video is very very popular in 2022.
It is likely that you will consider that a lot of Chinese are very narrow-minded(I think they are narrow-minded.). But it is that's the truth for now.
@Wang Dibo Very interesting. Thank you for enlightening me with your knowledge.
I'd been wondering how did medieval China held that long, thanks K@G. I would like to hear more about Liao Dynasty and Khitans, can you make a deep dive about these fascinating people? And their last western kingdom?
More on the way!
@Kings and Generals Thank You K&G , you're the best Historical Channel and more power to you 👍👍👍
Primariy four reasons
1. Song possessed the richest part of China which was mostly unravaged by wars fought with Jurchen Jin. Except for the ability to produce horses, other productions were mostly unhampered compared to the days when Song controlled Northern China.
2. Song had a well-equiped veteran army with combat experience gained from campaigns fighting Jin Dynasty. This was also a time during which the most incidents of armored clashes were seen. Both large proportionals of Jin and Song soilders were equipped with battleaxes to smash their armored opponents. (A longer, heavier and more destructive version of the Medieval European maces)
3. Kublai had to go back to Mongolia to compete for Khan after Mongke's death. A ten year truce was signed and allowed the Song to build fortifications along the frontline
4.The Song administration over-exaggerated Mongol atrocities and demonized the Mongols. Together with Chinese Nationalism many Song generals were more determined to resist than surrendering when being cornered
And don't forget before all of this happened, the Jurchen Jin, a unwilling buffer regime for the Song, fought the Mongols and the Song on two fronts for decades.
@Kings and Generals Please do more Liao content!!! Especially the Kara-Khitan!
Khitans' descendants established the Qing Dynasty.🤣🤣🤣 Some of the Khitans' become Mongol and Han nationality, some of them go back to northeast, and become Manchu late after.
Great channel and amazing content. The details paint a vivid image of what those times and battles were like.
Several jarring mistakes: at 11:16, the portrait of the two Jin emperors are actually portraits well-known Ming emperors. At 14:20 Chancellor Jia Sidao is a famous corrupt official known to undermine Song's military efforts against the Mongols. Many truly heroic Song generals can be cited as examples of effective Chinese resistance against Mongols, just not Jia Sidao.
props to you for pronouncing the Khans name correctly. i don't mind when ppl say "Genghis" cuz that for some reason is just how foreigners say it, but a historian such as yourself, i respect that you say his name correctly
greetings from a mongolian
You’re the only good source I know of to learn about the dynasties’ militaries. I mostly want a movie or show with a more realistic portrayal of them.
If anyone wants a good book series to read on the mongols, the Ghengis Khan series by Conn Igulden is amazing. Takes historical fiction to a whole new level of entertainment
Thank you for the recommendation! Merry Christmas! ✝️🎄
Love the channel K&G. Your content is varied and interesting no matter the era. Outstanding! Cheers from Tennessee
Mongolic & Tungusic people were eachothers iconic kryptonites ; Liao destroying Balhae, Jin destroying the Liao, Chinggisids destroying Jin, Qing destroying Dzungars,...
@İNŞALLAH MAŞALLAH ELHAMDÜLİLLAH Yeah Liao were Khitans
They gave the Korean kingdoms quite some grief as well. Funny enough, they sometimes had good relations too. It's weird.
Khitans got destroyed by the Korean kingdom Goryeo. More than 100,000 khitans got killed by the Koreans.
Terrific video! The battles between the Chinese and the Mongols are fascinating.⚔
ligden khan's death only made southern mongols (inner) submit to manchu rule, but conquest of central mongols (khalkha) took almost a 50 years. later on, the conquest of western mongols (dzungar-left hand khanate) took more than a 100 years when finally in 1759 remnants of dzungar mongols were conquered and slain in genocide. very few survivors mad it to central mongolia and kalmikya (in russia). main reason why mongols were defeated is that due to initial conflict between all 3 mongol states, some high ranked southern mongolian nobles were killed in khalkha which caused a huge crack between south and central mongols who were already in troublseome condition with western dzungar too. its just 3 stupid kids could not share their toy and in the end neighbors fat boy took whole thing
Same could be said for contemporary China (900-1200 AD)
Song Dynasty wanted all of China, but the Liao Dynasty (based in Manchuria) had the 8 prefectures that contained the Great Wall, making defending the Song's northern border almost impossible. Then the Liao Dynasty got overrun by the Jin Dynasty, while the Western Xia Dynasty carved out their own dominion in the northwest. All 3 were constantly vying for control before the "neighbour" in the north, the united Mongols, appeared and basically played on the Divide and Conquer strategy and overran all of them.
The history of empires is that their fall is always a combination of instability from within and pressure from without. No empire was an exception.
Dzungar is translated left hand Mongols
@Tenuun M dzungar means west mongolia
I chose to support my favourite channel anywhere today. I am very greatful to your team för creating such High quality content and wish the best for you all ❤
Congratulations on an excellent show, do you have any plans to do any episodes on the first Chinese civilizations, or cultures during the Bronze Age or even during the Neolithic period? Also do you have any plans to do any episodes on Egyptian revolts against the Roman Empire or the revolts of the Red Banner Batenis and the centuries long Islamic Kharijite rebellions against the Abbasid Caliphate, and also the revolts of Shayban al-Khariji, Behafarid who started a religious peasant revolt with neo-Mazdakism elements from Zoroastrianism and Islam? Or the revolts of Firuzan, commonly known as Emāmādeh Abu-lolo, Shabīb ibn Yazīd ibn Nuʿaym al-Shaybānī, Ustadh Sis,, Ishaq al-Turk, and Al-Muqanna?
“When Mongolia sends its people, they’re not sending their best.”
_Moments before disaster_
I'm gonna make a Great Wall and make Mongols pay for it.
"When Germany sends its people, they're not sending their best."
- Maginot, probably.
"I'm gonna build a great wall and make the Americans pay for it."
- Stalin, before ordering the construction of the Berlin wall. Probably.
@Jovan Mitrić Make me! 😂
How the Chinese fought the Mongols under Genghis Khan is a curious case study in how to fight the Mongols and how not too at the same time. Nice video.
I must say this is a great video using Chinese sources and even using Chinese terms in subtitles. It presented a fair view of the Chinese defense against the nomads throughout history w/o any Western bias - this video could have been made in Chinese. Given the amount of English language video which uses biased and inaccurate Western sources, this channel is like a breath of fresh air.
The supposed Western bias comes from popular culture, not from Western academia. Western academic articles often use Chinese sources and provide a much more nuanced view of these historical events.
Also, this channel sometimes use poor sources to create bad videos too. Look at their terribly low quality and inaccurate video about "earliest Chinese armies."
The Song dynasty focused mainly on arts and the economy, they did not put the military as a high priority. Considering this the Song dynasty did really well by defending against the mongols for 60 years.
Wow, 1 mio of Mongols : 50 mio of walled Chinese. Sung were really formidable.
@Morrigan Mhor Large population does not mean more soldiers. Just as the video said the Song dynasty had trouble recruiting soldiers.
@Morrigan Mhor I bet Putin is feeling about the same right about now.
So who was warring with Liao and then Jin, before the Mongols came into the fray?
Great video! Have you considered making a video/series about the rise of the Manchurian khans into the Great Qing? Or the Qing conquest of the Ming?
- It is impossible to understand and learn Mongolian history without understanding our unique culture!!!
Hi there. Thanks to your videos. I'm a fan and subscriber. By the way, the images that you used for Jin Emperor is actually the images of Ming Emperor (the dynasty after the Yuan and before the Qing). Love from Viet Nam.
The Jin were Jurchens. They weren't nomads but were still considered beneath the Han. After the Mongol yuan dynasty was pushed north, sometime around 1580s Nurachi started to unify the Jurchens. He reformed the Later Jin dynasty from the Jurchen to Manchu people. His grandson renamed the Later Jin to the Qing.
considered beneath the Han? by who? by Han people? Han Chinese people considered everyone (all other people outside China) except themselves beneath themselves until they got humiliated and finally learned the lesson in 19th and 20th centuries.
The Manchus are now pretty patriotic to the PROC though, same with the mogonlian-Chinese in Inner Mongolia. Meanwhile in Taiwan, the Han people there wanna be independent. 😂
@Republic of Taiwan Back then, the people in Taiwan wanted to take back mainland China from the communist party, but then they realized that was impossible, because the mainland was still too strong, and the US wouldn't want them to be united, really no hope. So those who were pro-independent/pro-separatism found a chance to took control of Taiwan with their promise of independence from communist party.
@JL Not only by the Han Chinese, but those tribes were considered barbaric and beneath everyone by everyone in the region like the Koreans, Japanese, and Vietnamese...as shown in their many ancient texts and records about those tribes...It's understandable because they were actually either nomad tribes or somewhat more barbaric tribes (without civilized lifestyles, without civl rules and civil laws)
土豆泥 汉堡咕唧 blessings to you brother.
BEHOLD! The horde of Genghis Khan approaches!
I honestly can't wait for the next episode of the Mongol Empire Alternate History
Age of Kings fan I see! That particular mission my habit is to get the monks and then convert everyone to my side
@Tian Wong I was playing it an hour ago haha! Unlocking higher difficulty medals on the campaigns.
@tyranitararmaldo I don't know if they corrected it, but a bug you can exploit is to set the tribes to Neutral and convert them with Monks. Always work
@Tian Wong oh I meant AoE2 in general. Was on the Berber campaign.
I remember K&G's older video about the final naval battle between Song and Mongols (Battle of Yamen 1279). The last Song child emperor and the old general jumped into the river suicide is so sad. The truly shocking part is "Mongolian Navy" defeated the Chinese.
The Yuan Navy was composed almost entirely of Southern Han Chinese defectors, thats why they were able to deliver such a decisive defeat to the Song navy, the technological field was balanced and they had experience with naval warfare
Mongolian were nomad horse riders, they didn't have Navy combat experience. "Mongolian Navy" was basically the Han Chinese army that betrayed and helped the Mogol army to conquer their own people.
@Michael Oliver No, the Yuan Navy was composed of Chinese who lived under Jurchen Jin rule, then Mongol rule. They were never Song subjects.
At 12:30, the resurgent Jin forces who took on the Mongols and won successive battles, even against Subutai, were led by the great general Wan Yen Heda. He was eventually defeated by Subutai and brought before him. "It is not chance but destiny that makes conquerors such as you. Having seen you, I am ready to die!" said Heda before being executed. With the general's resistance at an end, the Jin and the whole of China were doomed to fall.
As a student of history and a Mongol, this Chanel makes me so happy! Great work’
Now you have to explain how the Yongle emperor could beat nomads!
The earlier campaigns he had success but I think the last few of his campaigns were duds tbh since the Mongols simply chose not to engage him
Emperor Yongle's father obtained a large number of Mongolian horses when he started his army. The famous "Three Thousand Battalion" (three thousand cavalry) was the earliest cavalry unit of the Ming Army, all of which were composed of Mongols. More and more Han Chinese also began to join the cavalry. Later, the cavalry of the Ming army reached about 100,000. The ridiculous thing is that the "Three Thousand Battalion" has tens of thousands of scale. Everyone still calls this cavalry. The troops are "Three Thousand Battalions". From Zhu Yuanzhang to Yongle, the two fathers and sons launched the Northern Expedition. From North China to the next-door desert and then to the Mongolian plateau, more than a dozen battles broke out between the Ming army and the Mongolian and Yuan sides. Basically, it was cavalry against cavalry. Yongle The reason why Yongle was able to go deep into the Mongolian Plateau to fight and win was because Yongle had a powerful cavalry force
Because the Yuan Dynasty turned a large amount of arable land into pastures, coupled with the overwhelming advantage of the Ming Dynasty's steel production, the Ming Army at that time actually had a powerful heavy cavalry unit
@Rayray After all, the Mongols could not defeat Yongle emperor head-on and were defeated many times by Yongle emperor.
The Mongols had no choice but to avoid battle.
tfw mongols turned china's arable land into horse pastures and were shocked when the chinese built a great cavalry force out of it
when other regimes like the great jin、tangut and dali were defeated and finished by the mongols in the 13th century, the southern song who represented china at the time still resisted fiercely against the mongol empire for another tens of years until 1279, even killed a mongolian emperor in one of the battles.
The significance of the great wall in forming many smaller tribes into bigger and formattable armies cannot be understated.
The wall was not against the people, it is against the horses, the main advantages of the nomad raiders.
Its much more difficult getting the horses pass the wall, even if they do that by creating a hole in the wall, they will have to return through the same path with all their looted plunder, which by then the armies can form a blockade to prevent them from escaping.
the great wall literally created or played a key role in the formation of the Mongol and other nomad empires, as it was simply too cost effective against the smaller raider tribes.
The Song dynasty fought fiercely and held the line for decades, so long that part of Mongol army turned to conquer East Europe, at the end, tens of thousand of Chinese jump off the cliff into the sea together with their baby emperor, it was recorded as the end of civilization
Please make videos about the Dzungar Khanate (Oirat Mongols) who fought against the Kazakh Khanate, Qing empire, and Eastern Mongols. Also please include the part about the captured Swede who taught the Dzungar Mongols how to make matchlock guns. Thanks
Galdan boshugtu is a gigachad leader, second best great Khan.
@Migel angel De Jesús Quintero guardado Too bad except him no other leaders are as Chad as him so the entire Dzungars are exterminated by Qing. The Khanate or least Dzungars people should have survive to modern days.
You know I really don't mind the sponsorships. Anything to help improve and sustain the team of the channel :)
This is the first time I’ve heard that the Jin were jurchen in origin. That’s pretty neat considering they came back after mongols to defeat the Ming later on. Oh, they mentioned this in the video. Nice.
I think the biggest reason Song lost wars against Jin and Mongols was its military organization. Deployment, provisions, organization of generals and officers were all managed by different ministries led by bureaucrats and generals often don't have a say in how and when the soldiers are being used. The soldiers too often were recruits from convicts and poor unmotivated conscripts. It is a policy and doctrinal issue that plagued Song since its founding, rather than a lack of technology or funding.
The Song wasn't military inept without reason. The preceding dynasty, the Tang, famously imploded by being overly militarised, which led to endless wars and local warlords who disobeyed the Emperor.
When the first Emperor of Song became the only Emperor in Chinese history to be installed (against his own will) by his loyal generals, rather than forcing his way into becoming Emperor through military force like all the other great founders, he set about making his dynasty decidedly pacifist and restrained the miltary as much as he could.
If the Tang were a lesson of what happens if you overly militarise, then the Song are the lesson of what happens if you swing the pendulum too much the other way. Being overly pacifist and purposely neglecting/weakning the military has consequences as much as overly militaristic and prioritising the military.
Would it be possible to put your sources and even further reading in the description of your videos? Thank you and love you work 👍
I'll share them today if I get time, and then KnG can add them to the description
Some of the sources I used here. There's more I used but they're spread out across a few different sheets of notes, and I don't feel like battling through my organization strategy right now:
Minhāj-ud-Din [Juzjani]. Ṭabaḳāt-i-Nāṣirï: A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of
Asia, Including Hindustan; from A.H. 194 (810 A.D.) to A.H. 658 (1260 A.D) and the Irruption of the Infidel Mughals Into Islam. Translated by Major H.G. Raverty. Volume II. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, 1970 (1881).
Pow, Stephen and Jingjing Liao. “Subutai: Sorting Fact from Fiction Surrounding the Mongol Empire’s Greatest General (With Translations of Subutai’s Two Biographies in the Yuan Shi).” Journal of Chinese Military History 7 (2018): 37-76.
The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century. Translated by Igor de Rachewiltz. Vol 1. Brill, 2004.
Zhao-Gong. “A Memorandum on the Mong-Tatars.” in The Rise of the Mongols: Five Chinese Sources. Translated and Edited by Christopher P. Atwood, 71-92. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2021.
Allsen, Thomas T. “The Rise of the Mongolian Empire and Mongolian Rule in North China.” In The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6, Alien States and Border Regimes, 907-1368. Edited by Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank, 321-413. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Atwood, Christopher. “Pu’a’s Boast and Doqolqu’s Death: Historiography of a Hidden Scandal in the Mongol Conquest of the Jin.” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, 45 (2015): 239-278.
Brook, Timothy. The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Belknap Press, Cambridge: 2010.
Davis, Richard L. “The Reigns of Kuang-tsung (1189-1194) and Ning-tsung (1194-1224),” in The Cambridge History of China, vol 5, Part One: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 907-1279, edited by Denis Twitchett and Paul Jakov Smith, 756-838. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Davis, Richard L. “The Reign of Li-tsung (1224-1264),” in The Cambridge History of China, vol 5, Part One: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 907-1279, edited by Denis Twitchett and Paul Jakov Smith, 839-921. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Desmond, Martin H. The Rise of Chingis Khan and His Conquest of North China. Edited by Eleanor Lattimore. (Baltimore, 1950; repr. New York, 1971)
Franke, Herbert. “The Chin Dynasty,” in The Cambridge History of China vol 6., Alien States and Border Regimes. Edited by Herbet Franke and Denis Twitchett, 215-320. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Haw, Stephen G. “The Mongol Empire- the first ‘gunpowder empire’?” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3, 23 no 3 (2013): 441-469.
Wang Tseng-yü, “A history of the Sung Military,” in the Cambridge History of China vol.5, Part Two: Sung China, 969-1279, edited by Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank, 214-249. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Wright, David Curtis. “Navies in the Mongol Yuan Conquest of Southern Song China, 1274-1279,” Mongolian Studies 29 (2007): 207-216.
I read it a few years ago and don't remember it well. But James Waterson's Defending Heaven: China’s Mongols Wars, 1209-1370. Frontline Books, Barnsley: 2013. provides a serviceable and accessible overview of this topic, and should be easy to find a copy of.
Wow these are great! Are these just your personal sources or did you research or write this video for Kings and Generals and these are the sources you used?
@The Jackmeister: Mongol History Thank you for posting these! Merry Christmas! ✝️🎄
That Jin dynasty heavy cavalry armour is a sight to behold.
I have a picture taken on the southern border of the Gobi of what I was told was part of the Great Wall complex (actually many walls over a long period). This wall was made of mud bricks interspersed with reeds. I wonder if it was the work of the first emperor.
Excellent video 📹
New history explained 👌
250 years after Genghis Khan, there was a second revival of the Mongol Empire which forced the Ming Dynasty to create the present ' Great Wall of China '.
Most history books say, the Mongols went into oblivion with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty.
The history books are right. The Mongols didn't really rise to prominence, although they crippled the Chinese army and captured the Ming emperor in AD1449, and besieged Beijing a few years later. But the siege of Beijing City ended in failure. Then Mongolia fell into division again. Before this war, the Ming Dynasty had been maintaining its offensive against Mongolia, sending large armies deep into Mongolia many times to attack various Mongolian tribes. After this war, the Ming Dynasty's strategy against Mongolia turned to defense, but this does not mean that Mongolia has become stronger, but the Ming Dynasty lost its elite cavalry unit and could no longer attack Mongolia as before.
During the Ming Dynasty, Mongolia was already very weak. In the end, Mongolia was completely destroyed because of its marriage with the Jurchen. The Jurchen (Later Jin Kingdom/the Qing Dynasty) in Northeast China married the Khorchin Mongols in order to fight against the Ming Dynasty. And Khorchin Mongol is a descendant of Genghis Khan's brothers, so this marriage gave the Jurchen king (the emperor of the Qing Dynasty) the legitimacy to seize the Mongolian Khan throne. Later, in 1632, Ligdan Khan, the last Mongolian Khan, was defeated by the Jurchen. All Mongolian tribes regarded the Qing Emperor as their Khan, and followed the Qing Emperor to the south to eliminate the Ming Dynasty. But after the Ming dynasty was wiped out, the Qing emperor considered himself emperors of China and Manchurians first, and Mongol khans second, so he imposed strict restrictions on Mongolian tribes, which eventually led to the relocation of most Mongolian tribes to Inner Mongolia (now part of the China), including the Khorchin Mongols, these tribes eventually became fully Chinese. Only the weakest tribes were left on the Mongolian.
@Z.H Li I respect the narrative of China.
Also 200 years after that the local Mongols helped the Manchu take over China.
It never stopped.
As a matter of fact, the Northern Song Dynasty reunified most of China (中國) in 979, with the exception of only 18 prefectures in the very northeastern part of the Huabei Plain (宋史·地理志). The Northern Song Dynasty ruled almost all of the China Proper from 960 to 1127, including most of Northern China.
Excellent summary! Well done!
I think the portrait use for Jin's last ruler Aizong was actually an Emperor of Ming Dynasty some 200 years later.
Thank you for your amazing content.
Could you make an episode about
Philaretos Brachamios - distinguished Byzantine general and warlotd of Armenian heritage, and for a time was a usurper against emperor.
It is hard not to be nostalgic for Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, who was born in the 7th century. Because of his fame, every emperor of the Tang Dynasty also served as the heaven Khan. During the 300 years of the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese people did not have to worry about the Mongolian steppes or build any wall, which is unique in Chinese history.
mongol doesn’t even exist at the time of tang
@Paper Cat they certainly exist and serve tang army. Back then they are part of Khitan army which served Tang. There is no mongol people tbh. Mongol is minorities among many nomadic people living in steppe, mongol happens to be the one group who unit them and their leadership is a Mongolian.
@erlingqier icyice good point the name Mongol come after the genghis. Before that yes they do exist, but exist as other tribes and names not Mongol.
What’s more, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty moved to the Kaifeng city not Kaiping. The city was the capital of the Song between 960 and 1127.
More ancient China videos would be great:)
You missed the part that Ming under Ming Taizu/Yongle conquered Manchuria from Mongol Yuan in 14th century. Dongbei(Manchuria) has plenty of Ming reminants even today.
18:50 Can we just pause and apreciate what an awesome flag the imperial chinese flag was?
Lets hope it will one day wave again!
now rate the flag of Bhutan :)
The Siege of Diao Yu Fortress by the Mongols should have it's own episodes. Just a suggestion.
Such a massive endeavor
"Do not fear the wolves of the steppe. They are but wind howling in the night, rattling doors." - Jia Sidao
And the steppe wolves did destroyed china
@Brandon Mayhew They became the third of four mighty non-Chinese dynasties (if you do not count Tang).
@Red Bee It is possible, though the Northern China was rather racially mixed.
@Red Bee Tang Taizong's mother was Xianbei and his father Han. Doesn't make it a turkic dynasty. But it was cosmopolitan and multi ethnic tho.
Sponsorships aren't so bad. We get it; it's hard to make this a full-time job for an entire team of people. Do what you guys have to do within reason.
You ignore the fact that the majority of Jin’s subjects still consider Jin a barbaric non-Han “outsider” regime.
It’s a pedantic thing, but as ethnically Chinese, I appreciate your better than most pronunciation
Didn't mention the key point. It's all about archery and horsing skills. Arrows go parabolically, so it takes lots of time to practice your shooting skills, especially when you need to shoot a moving target on a moving horse back, but you even can't maneuver a horse yet.
Ancient Chinese is underrated
"There were so many female warriors in Mongolia, who were taking care of the homeland while the Khans were away fighting. Please tell their stories in your next videos. Thanks."
Yes, please do consider at least. For instance, Khutulun: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khutulun
Han's Heqin policy was a method to buy time, as Emperor Gaozu, upon re-unifying the disintegrated Qin Dynasty, realized that the war-torn central plains was in no position to compete against a nomadic empire in its golden age. After 100 years of developing the economy, centralizing power, and strengthening the imperial position, Han Wudi felt it was time to strike back against Xiongnu, and thus began the Han-Xiongnu Wars.
I would love it if Kings and Generals would do videos of the Gallowglass warriors of Ireland.
On the list
The composite bow was a divine weapon born from madness .
Deserves a few minutes of explanation don't you think ?
Fantastic video keep it up your doing amazing job
some information the video did not mention. The Jin empire, also known as the golden empire, was founded by Jurchens, a group of Tungusic speakers who lived in the basin of the Sungari river, a tributary of the Amur River. Jin was a Chinese translation. It was called Anchu Gurun, the golden empire in the Jurchen language and it covered today's North China, Manchuria, and part of Siberia in its heyday. The golden empire did not conquer the steppe, it put most of its attention on the conquer of North China. Such a strategy made the golden empire very vulnerable to the invasion of Mongols. In 1213, Mongols conquered Zhongdu, today's Peking, and Wanggiyan Udabu, the emperor of the golden empire, fled to the south. The loss of Zhongdu cut off the connection between the rulers of the golden empire and their homeland. And the golden empire became to look like 11:34, which means the rulers of the golden empire had to rely heavily on the resources they could extract from the Chinese in North China. And one of the reasons that Jurchens could finally defeat Mongols in 1634 17:53 is that Jurchens had become very Mongolized at this time. The Jurchen aristocrats in the early 17th century were a group of Jurchens who were highly Mongolized. Most of these Jurchen aristocrats could speak the Mongol language, and they adopted the Mongol religion and married Mongol wives. Hongtaiji, one of the founders of the Qing empire, got his name from the Mongols. Hongtaiji was actually a very typical Mongol name that meant prince and there were many Mongol tribe leaders also named Hongtaiji.
Interesting. Thanks for sharing. 👍
How did mongolization enable the Jin to better defeat the mongols?
@rareneedle the jurchens in the 17th century adopted Mongol's religion which helped them to united various Mongol tribes who opposed Ligdan Khan because of sectism. And jurchens also consolidated the loyalty of many mongol tribes through marriage. Most Manchu princesses married mongol princes During the Qing era 1644-1911.
As a Manchu, this is the comment I was scrolling and looking for. I got so confused by the video on how my ancestors fighting the Mongols became a war of Chinese and Mongols.
I find out that in most parts of the world, it is mostly the Northern' countries' or countries from the North invading(primarily due to lack of food during winter) countries from the South and usually wins. This happens in Europe, Mediterranean, as well as in Asia.
An interesting hypothesis. However, it does not explain the rise of Rome, the rise of Egypt, Mesopotamia/Babylonia, India or the rise of Islam. None of those originated in cold climates.
Liao is like today's Russia, controlling most of the land and had absolutely dominate power in East/West Asia, and they had all kinds of nomads under their direct control. However, they cannot win against Jin (jurchen), just like today's Ukraine. So, their power structure breaks down, eventually replaced by Mongol who make an even bigger empire than them. Mongol is not unique but certainly most successful tbh.
This is my favorite series so far
What is the source for the Jin armies beating Subedei? I’ve never heard of any army beating Subedei the invincible. Also, he wasn’t exactly a rising general. He had been with Genghis Khan for a long long time.
As a Jin border guard myself, I welcome our new Mongol overlords
And your new Mongol overlords will most definitely treat you well won't kill you or torture you
@Mfundo Ngwenya if u are an engineer they won't
Hehe Simpson reference
I love that story can u do more Roman history?🎉❤
Why left out the Hongwu adventures on karakorum? There's so much content about his champions especially lan yu and his band of raiders from fujian
Great video. One complain if I have to is that the portrait used at 11:11 is Xuanzong of Ming dynasty not Jin.
I heard that Manchu rulers of Qing Dynasty give their Manchu princesses as wives Mongol Princes since in Mongol culture wives given families are more powerful than wives taking families they can easily control The Mongols through this diplomatic marriages which explained why Manchu rulers of Qing dynasty had a lot of Mongols son-in-laws during theirs early days of Qing Dynasty.
I saw the thumbnail of the Chinese soldiers in medieval European Knight type armor & was like "Yo ok I gotta watch this episode!"
Song China is my favourite China.
It's basically the one you see in medieval pop culture depictions of China.
Oh, and also those 'traditional Chinese Shan Shui paintings' come from that era.
It depends. You see a lot of Tang, Song and Ming motifs in modern day pop culture. Tang for clothing, Song for technology, Ming for military might (and authoritarian despotism, if the depiction is trying to go political).
Not so much Han (too ancient), Yuan (mixed into Ming) and Qing (too recent).
Please make a dedicated documentary about the rise of the Qing empire.
More videos on this please!!
It didn't go into detail about how the Song defended against the Mongols. I read their territory was bad for cavalry and they countered the Mongol horse archers with crossbows. Next how the Vietnamese and Japanese fought the Mongols.
Thanks! These are fantastic!
So about 400,000 (at most, because they were warring also in the West) first defeated and conquered the partly sinicized Jurchen dynasty (with the help of the Kitans) and then with slightly bigger manpower conquered Southern Sung, which did have about 50 million of inhabitants, watercourses, battleships and walled towns. Incredible!
50 million sounds extremely low ball. The Southern Song at 1200 by modern estimates had nearly 140 million inhabitants due to improved agriculture, metallurgy, and waterway infrastructure. Unfortunately, it takes more than infantry, large navies, and economic might, you also need the mobility afforded by lots of cavalry, or else you might find your supply lines cut off.
@A C Yep. Back then, cavalry was 100% reliant on horses, and the Song had basically no horses nor the fields to maintain any large forces of horses they did have. Its like trying to fight a modern war without any oil at all. Impossible, other than to hide in walled cities (that didn't have sufficient foods to last forver).
Static defenses can always be overcome with enough time and adaptability.
The Song were doomed before they even began. They needed the Great Wall and the horse-rearing lands near it to have a chance, but those lands were lost in the preceding centuries-long civil war period.
If wasn't for internal dynastic decline of Song, China could have defended against the Mongols forever and then get on the offense, the same way China defeated the XiongNu and force it to migrate to Europe to become the Huns. It didn't matter tho, China overthrew Yuan in less than 100 years. Also many other nomadic and agrarian cultures surrounded all over china (Xinjiang, Tibet, Manchuria etc) and gradually they were all assimilated into china after centuries of repeated incursions into china.
Bonjour vos vidéos sont incroyable
Je suis très fan serait il envisageable que bénévolement je traduise les vidéos en français et pose ma voix à la place de la voix anglaise afin d'augmenter la portée de vos vidéos et surtout en faciliter l'accès au communauté francophone
Yet another great video, thx!
yue fei vs genghis khan would've been a legendary showoff
I am a Chinese which identity is Mongolian. My father and mother moved from Inner Mongolia to Beijing in their generation. It is very interesting to see how western media understand history between different group of people in East Asia.I am not gonna say there r lots of bias and stereotypes, but it is better to check these things from the origin place. Like, what is nowadays Chinese, what is nowadays Mongolian? What is the difference between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.
Lets not talk about the famous general WanYan Cheng He Shang, whose name is so long that is definitely not a Chinese, who defeat Mongol (8000 calvary) with 400 calvary and defeat subutai afterwards and in the final battle with combined Mongol force 40,0000 destroyed at San Feng Shan. Jin dynasty dies afterwards. He is a legendary hero for Jin. If not him, Jin would be destroyed way earlier. The Ogeide Khan got so distraught after he heard the subutai was defeated by this guy, because subutai by then is like demon lord for Mongol force. His defeat send fear to Mongol. Jin's last stand is more applaudable than Song in my opinion. Although manchu originated from same area as Jurchen, we cannot say they are same people.
Yue Fei's record was also very good if not better than wanyan Chengheshang.
Please make a video on Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (c. 550-860 CE)
The crushing defeat of Tumu is a result of Ming Civil official and Oriats secret alliance to eliminate the dominating Ming military elites from the Chinese court.
Thank you for this great video
Genghis Khan's remark to his new soldiers : 'But beware the Kara Khitan'