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What happened with the Muslim Majority of Spain?
- Published on May 30, 2023 veröffentlicht
- What happened with the Muslim Majority of Spain?
The history of Spain has been vast and elaborate for centuries. It seems that the sizeable Iberian nation managed to keep itself relevant rather consistently over hundreds of years, and it's often remembered as a powerful, European, Christian nation. But before the colonial era or the Spanish Inquisition, came the Reconquista - something that was only necessary due to the conquest of Spain by Muslim Arabs and Berbers. Before the Reconquista was the period launched by such invaders - the time of Islamic Spain. But where did the Muslims go? How did Spain become synonymous with Christianity instead?...
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Comments • 9 038
A lot of people don't usually think about this but the Spanish conquest of America (or Americas) has to do a lot with the methods that the Romans and Arabs used in the peninsula rather than comparing them to the British or French. That is why indigenous tribe leaders that sweared loyalty to the Castilian crown where made nobles and the indigenous government structure was kept with the addition of race mixing of the indigenous elites and later a race mixing in the community as a whole lo create a unique identity with the Catholic Church and the Castilian crowns as a glue. It also explains why the Castilian crown became so obsessed with Catholicism, they knew religion and language were dividing factors so made sure to get rid of anything that did not align with the Kigdom.
I'm no expert but I don't think this is a lot different to how the British controlled India for so long, via the British Raj & Princely states systems.
As someone that has traveled down through, I'd say you're right you can definitely see it in the cities, and I'd say the Portuguese did the same.
@Chris HUTTON Difference is the Spanish was doing a lot of "procreating" with the locals and slaves compared the the brits and frogs.
Yup and the British models where simular to that of the Vikings.
The Arabic influence in Spanish is primarily lexical. Is estimated that around 4,000 Spanish words have some kind of Arabic influence-8% of the Spanish dictionary. Approximately 1,000 of those have Arabic roots, while the other 3,000 are derived words.
Yes, we have a lot of words from old arabic, but vacabulary doesn´t changes the latin sintax, is only lexical enrichment, and many times we have two different words for the same object one from the latin and another from arabic or goth, or even from american natives languages.
Many Mexican Spanish words are Mayan or Aztec; coyote, peyote, avocado, xolo just to name a few.
Architecture, music, hygiene and war tactics as well. It's littered all over Spain to this day.
@JOSE ANTONIO CASTRO heil to the great influence of the Pagan Persians.....
Rodriguez is one of the most common surnames in Spain, Rodriguez means son of Rodrigo and Rodrigo comes from Visigothic name Roderic so Rodriguez is a surname of Germanic origin.
Rodriguez is two words Rod Riguez arabic words meaning garden of the dance.
@arlan pereira lima no tienes ni pura idea
@arlan pereira lima menuda mania que teneis de cambiar muchas cosas en Moro , como por ejemplo la Paella tambien es mora , menos mal que las mentiras no matan que si no no veas 😅 .
El nombre de Rodriguez es puro ESPANOL =HISPANICO
@Jojo Lafrite Tienes razón. Bastante tenemos con que unas 4000 palabras del español provengan del árabe, como para que encima algunos se inventen otras.
Found so much world history when I started family genealogy about four years ago. I have data for three areas that you show: Spain, North Africa and the Ottoman Empire. Recently, I had a blessing of buying a National Geographic magazine of November 1986 from a bookstore: Our Search for the True Columbus Landfall. Your info of January and March 1492 gives me a little more information of what was going on with Isabella and Ferdinand, and why they finally gave into Columbus. Here “we” are with technology to send people to the Moon, and machines to Mars, and yet these persons, such as Columbus, are crossing “the ocean blue in 1492” with their technology. It’s amazing!!!
Several visigoths nobles competing for power actually assisted and helped guide the Muslim conquerers, providing them with intel on locations deep in the peninsula. Also worth mentioning that the Spanish jews sided with the Muslims.
Rub hands intensifies
Overall a really well made and informative summary of the topic. Though very disappointed at the lack of mention of King Pelayo, the Kingdom of Asturias and the Battle of Covadonga which is considered by many to be the start of the Reconquista and the sole reason why, for better or for worse, Hispanic culture/civilisation even exists in the first place today!
@Islam the Great yes, you are absolutely right, the colonialist moors who came from North Africa.
Slava Hispania! Hispania îs the front of the civilisation towards a lesser and predator civilisation.Slava.
Asturias and Cantabria weren't part of Al-Andalus, they were a Christian stronghold during the Muslim occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. The "Cantabrian Refuge" was so well-protected it was the last region in western Europe conquered by the Roman Empire.
It's thought that the refugees, who were mostly aristocrats and their followers, and the need for common defence helped kill off the last remnants of the Celtic language in the region.
I am Brazilian, but on my father's side, the family came from southern Spain, from Granada. They were moors many centuries prior. Supposedly, according to family legend, they were corsairs who served the Spanish crown during the age of sail.
Spain did not use corsairs; Spain had the Almogavares who fought in Alger, Balear Islands, south of Italy and Byzantium against Moors and Turks.
Im from andalucia the msulim explused but no have berberechos or arab blood here all are iberian race if you see your tree family
@Antonio Rangel How do you know and why wouldn't they? Spain hired mercenaries from foreign countries many times.
Cuba and Mexico is where you would find the most Ibero Muslim descendants, but north of Brazil is where you would find Ibero Jews descent.
@Ma Juscule yea but they are not muslims they converted to Christianity
Note, the Umayyads, did NOT take the whole of the Iberian peninsula in 711, you seem to have completely overlooked that in the North, in Oviedo, the Christian Visigoths of the region put up a fight and defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Covadonga, preventing them from total control of the peninsula as they were rebuffed by the small newly formed Kingdom of Asturias led by the victor the battle, Pelagius .
... and most of the Basque Region was never conquered by the Muslims!
@Antonio Rangel thank you! someone also gets it. Maybe it's just a nitpick but this channel has been very good with historical videos and this was a big oversight.
@Javier Saugar Big oversight. He lost all credibility with that.
Puxa Asturias and Long live our king Pelayo or Pelagius
@Asturias Celtic Gloria a Don Pelayo, hermano Ibérico 🤟🏻
Good video, although it's clearly incomplete.
One can not discuss what happened to the muslims of Al-Andalus without talking about the actual Morocco.
Cities like Tetouan and Tangier in the north of Morocco have a huge andalusian influence, which was brought by the expelled muslims.
Fez as well, and even Tlemçen in Algeria also kept several andalusian traditions and some of the notable families still have unchanged spanish family names like Torres, Perez, Toledano (which means "from Toledo")...
It is said that some families still have the keys to their homes in the kingdom of Granada, as a symbol of their andalusian origins.
Actually, the influence was first the opposite way. Moroccan kings and their soldiers were the first to access Andalusia and were central to the birth of muslim rule of spain. Just look at the architecture etc... It's a copy of what is in Morocco.
@N C in the era of almoravids whose capital is fez they transported the architecture from fez marackech to al andalous due to the betrayal of arabs they let moroccans fight Spaniards by themselves which resulted in the colonolisation of two morrocan cities ceuta et mellila
Most of the “spanish” muslims were settled in Túnez. They were a minority there until few decades ago. That didn’t happened in “Morocco”, a place in which there were “moriscos” but not so many.
@CEIVE4EVERMore than 1 million have emigrated to Morocco setteld in tanger, tetouan, fez, rabat, meknes even oudja and the city as chefchaouan was founded by andalusians!
Thank you for those who translated the video to Spanish. Very useful!
أستعمل لطرد المسلمين أشكال كثيرة من التعذيب ، 😔
Lies again? Marine Soldier Debit Card
Very well done, this was a very good historic summary.
Nothing about slavery, harems, subjugation castration and general dhimmitude. You know, eight hundred years of the usual terrorist stuff.
6:07 I am a Spaniard and my family descends from Jewish emigrants (who probably went into exile to Spain after the destruction of Jerusalem by Emperor Hadrian) converted to Christianity by order of the Catholic kings. It is very interesting to see part of our history represented in this video! 👍
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:
The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews. Sahih Muslim 2922
@Mohola H That is quite racist
@Mohola H I wonder how many muslims know of this hatred in your holly book
@coloredhouse This is during the final war between most Jews that would stood under Dajjal and Christian and Muslims that stood behind Al Masih ( messiah )
@Fyzzy This is during the final war between most Jews that would stood under Dajjal and Christian and Muslims that stood behind Al Masih ( messiah )
It can also be attributed to the cultural differences of the locals to that of a foreign religion, that made it slowly seem irrelevant to adopt long term. Spain is bordered by very strong Christian influences, of which would need continueous islamic influence for it to sustain the majority. Its not a surprise when Islamic empires were in a decline that the outer influences of other religions managed to pierce through and hold.
iberia was christian already
The biggest fear of the Spanish moors wasn't the Spanish until late in the reconquesta. It was that the abassid or Fatma Muslims or other Muslim groups would cross over from morroco and take them over.
Iberia was already Christian by the 4th century and even further when the Visigoths converted.
Although the information in general was accurate, the maps were incorrect for 1035. Also, Spain as a political entity, did not come about until the late 15th century with the union of the Crowns of Aragon and Castile and the conquest of the Emirate of Granada. For centuries, there were five kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula: Portugal, Castile, Navarre, the Crown of Aragon (a confederation of the Kingdom of Aragon, the Catalan counties, Valencia and the Balearic Islands) and the Emirate of Granada.
Shhh people don't care about all that. It's a Christian victory let the crusaders celebrate!
It's true. Although the idea of Hispania-Spain is created by the Romans. And the Visigoths reigned in Hispana-Spain in the 6th century. There was already an idea of Spain at that time. Throughout the Middle Ages, the Spaniards from Aragon, Castilla, Galicia or Navarra called themselves Spaniards. El Cid speaks of the Spains, in the plural. There has always been that idea of a single homeland, but with several kingdoms. It's like Germany, which throughout the Middle Ages had 300 or 400 independent kingdoms, united by a highly divided empire, which was definitively united in 1870. Or Italy, which was united in the 1860s. Although Goethe, Beethoven, Raphael or Leonardo da Vinci know that they are German or Italian from different kingdoms.
@Zain YG I mean the internal divisions don’t matter as much as the over-all effect of Hispania remaining Christian.
@Gloriaimperial1 That Hispania and not España was destroyed in 711. What emerged was al-Andalus and the Asturo-Leonese kingdom of the north. The northern Catalan territories and the Portuguese did NOT identify themselves as Spaniards. Roman Hispania included the province of Lusitania, which would be more or less the territory of Portugal. The Portuguese, who declared their independence from the Leon in the first half of the 12th century, did not consider themselves as Spanish or as Spaniards.After becoming independent from the Frankish kingdom, they were known as the Catalan counties that would join with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the loosely Crown of Aragon, which was a loose confederation that was later conquered the Balearic islands and Valencia. The Asturo-Leonese kingdom would subdivide into León and Castilla. The Leonese Crown did have the claim to Hispania and Alfonso VII crowned himself as emperor of Hispania. Your claim that the Navarrese and Catalans viewed themselves as "Spanish" is not based on any documentation. You provide an oversimplified interpretation of a complex identification of the different elites of the five kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula of the middle ages. I would recommend that you read Miguel Ladero Quesada, Julio Valdeón Baruque, Vicente Álvarez Palenzuela and Luis Suárez Fernández among Spanish medieval historians, and then José Mattoso, Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, A.H. de Oliveira Marques and Bernardo Vasconcelos e Sousa amongst the Portuguese medieval historians
@Gloriaimperial1 Your notion of Germany that finally unified under Prussian hegemony in 1871, is no comparison to the Holy Roman Empire or the Confederation of the Rhine or the German Confederation. Although the notion and concept of Germany existed for centuries, many people identified themselves with the crowned leaders of the separate kingdoms, duchies and principalities that existed. This "German particularism" is what kept the German states from uniting. It was only in the 19th century that nationalism brought the different German states together. This notion that in the Middles Ages, people had the same concept and interpretation of nationhood did not exist.
As a Mexican-American events in Spain that long ago affected me personally of who I am and my heritage today. That is just mind boggling AMAZING !
If they hadn't kicked the muslims out they wouldn't of been able to create their empire n sail to South America, everything couldve been different n the Mexican population would be totally different than it is today, it's why history matters imo.
@peter smith I totally agree. In fact everyone's personal history is the result of what your and my ancestors did hundreds and even thousands of years ago. Stunning to know that.
@peter smith if it wasn't for those brave heros taking back Iberia we would never have gotten the world we know of today
@This Apple Judges your heroes were cowards
You mentioned at first how the "Spaniards" at first were fighting each other which lead to the weakening of modern Spain, but you didn't mention how the Muslims got weaker from fighting each other? The Muslims did the same thing the Visigoths were doing to each other before the Muslim conquest to Spain and Portugal.
The truth is until the late reconquesta, nobody wanted any kingdom, be it Spanish or moorish, to become to powerful and be able to conquer all the rest. They did a pretty good job of all 3 faiths living together. The great El Cid had very good ties to Zaragoza. At the same time the king of Leon was sent into exile so he went to toledo, under moorish rule. The great AL rahman 2s mother was a Navarro princess and he had blue eyes and light skin. His aunt asked him to send his Jewish doctor because his cousin, and soon to be king of Navarro, was fat.
Probably even worse. Most of the time a leader died, The new leader had to fight off his brothers, uncles and sometimes others. Later on in the ottoman empire, the new leader killed all his brothers so that kind of kept them safe and his son didn't have to deal with his uncles.
@Theodore Smith u dont know wat ur talking about
And the beggining of reconquista wasnt about religion. Many christians allied themselfs with muslins and many familes mary their sons into different religions.
The true goal of reconquista was power, expel the "foreigners" and try to unite iberia under one kingdom.
The 10 and 11 century were a complete mess, worst than game of thrones. Many wars between families, counties, kingdoms.
But with the depopulation of Iberia because of constant war, many people from France and Germany or Morrocos come to the Peninsula to try established himselfs in life.
Thats when things become a litle more religious and with the help of English/French/Germans the muslins were expelled to Granada.
@César Afonso exactly, conflicts are never as simple as 1 religion vs another
Many people don't realize modern day Spanish has fractions of Gothic loanwords in it as a result of the Suevians & Visigoth presense for over 350 years after the fall of Rome.
queso ... is basically the same word as "Käse" in German. The ancient Romans were not big fans of diary products and cheese making, that is something the Gothic tribes brought.
Actually "Spain" was not born after the conquest of Granada, as Castile and Aragon preserved their laws and institutions, sharing only their common king, for more than 2 centuries.
Spain was born in roma
Godfrey of Bouillon yeah i know its not the same Spain now days but I presonaly think spain started on roma
"Achthually" 🤓. Dude, Spain was forged in the Reconquista.
many modern countries have administrative regions with their own lawns and institutions for example Spain, USA, UK ...
Then why did they Spaniards consider that Spain had been lost due to the Muslim invaders, "la España perdida".
Lots of inconsistencies in this video. Firstly Al-Andalus never conquered the northernmost regions of the peninsula, Asturias, Aragón and others retained their independence and while we can speak in modern times of the process of "reconquista", this was never even an idea for those small Christian kingdoms vying for survival. Also, Castile was born alongside other kingdoms such as León and even Galicia, and ended up ruling over the others through marriage, force, etc. Spain wasn't a thing until a few centuries later. And why did you leave out Rossellón in France? Why did you use modern borders and cities?
Yes the people of Castile, Aragon, León etc were essentially the same people . They were the people of Hispania .They were not Berbers or Arabs
Yeah this whole video series leaves me unconvinced. It's not academically robust, it seems like there is a political agenda behind it but we don't know which, though I doubt it is one based on love and acceptance of the other. Ironic that now we have the world's knowledge at our fingertips, if we read or see anything on the internet now, we need to go to the physical library to check if it is legit or misinformation or what. Digital era... underwhelming.
History is mostly incositant because what we have is the propaganda from the winners lol.
Putting Madrid in the map was very inaccurate.
Yeah, not the first time when this content creator doing inaccuracies. Now i'm clicking don't recommend on youtube main page, to avoid getting dissinformation.
Segundo error. La ciudad de Bilbao, fue fundada en el año 1300, no existía en el Reino Visigodo de Hispania.
Fast forward a few centuries: I’m from Guatemala, my last name Alfaro is from a city from the same name in the county of La roja Spain, originally from the Arabic Al-farras which meant torch bearer… then adapted to Spanish Faro which means “lighthouse” or “beacon”… the AL remained to the point that “AL” means “to” and “faro” means “lighthouse” so together “Alfaro” means “to the lighthouse” (in a literal translation)….. similarly last names in Spanish also have either an occupation or trait that resonates with them (Herrera =“ herrero”= blacksmith) and so on….. historically Alfaro was of noble lineage but I’m pretty sure we’re bottom of the barrel to claim the Spanish throne (although we can battle royal it to settle it)
Great research of your name👏
al in arabic means "the", so its actually "the lighthouse" :)
That is very interesting. It helps connect the present with the past. It is also fun to learn something about language roots. Spanish is not just strictly a Latin language.
yes... its a stretch since that area is down south
There is a small town in Portugal called Alfarras.
I just wanted to mention that as far as I've gathered, when it comes to both the more or less constant 'infighting' amongst, as well as the continuous 'dispersal' (or spreading) of the descendents of many of the originally Scandinavian and other Germanic tribes..is supposedly due to their 'rule' of inheritance.
That is that only the eldest son inherited everything from their father - which led to all the rest of the brothers having to 'try their luck' elsewhere. Which most of them did, and ultimately led both to a lot of infighting, trying to conquer/steal the land (and riches) of other 'tribes' - or, after 'banding together' trying to establish themselves elsewhere,
(Like for ex. the Normans, first in Normandie, then their conquest of England. The Lombards in Italy and like here, the 'Visigoths' in Spain. They were after all descendents of the [in-]famous 'Vikings'/Normans - whose culture, as well as religious beliefs pretty much could be described as being a 'Warrior-cult': where one's ultimate 'goal' was to die with a sword in your hand [at least when it came to the warriors]...since it was the one thing that ensured you 'came to heaven'/'Valhalla'.).
*Just a quick question, if I may? -From what I've gathered many sources claims that the 'Goths' (subsequently separated into the Visi- & Ostro-Goths: meaning West- & East-Goths) originated from the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Baltic sea. (Which population, in Swedish were known as either 'Goter' or 'Gutar'). But, I've also encountered some conflicting statements about their origin.
-So, I'm wondering if anyone knows where the 'Goths' is believed to have originated from?
Fun fact: Most of the Bosnian Jews, mainly in Sarajevo are descendants of the expelled Spanish Jews, but a lot of them were killed during Holocaust in WW2.
they just couldnt catch a break could they
@AAA Batteries they just couldn’t catch a brake from the christian europeans!
Not fun, tragic!
Very well described.😇
Great work and very professional.🙏
Did you know that if you prove that you actually descend from those sephardic jews (Iberian Jews) that were expelled from the peninsula, the actual government of Spain will grant you citizenship for living here in Spain?? no test,no paperwork, no waiting, no nothing, just direct citizenship! Great video as alway! much love from Mallorca!
İs this also valid for moorish descendants?
@The Spiritual Wanderer no
Why isn't the same privilege extended to descendants of expelled Muslim Moor?
There were some theological basis for the internecine strife among the Visigoths, as well as for the alliance between the Muslims and a faction of the Visigoths. These basis were the opposition between, on the one had, the non-trinitarian arian Christianity and the unity or tawhid of Muslims, and, on the other hand, the Catholic trinity of the Visigoths recently converted to Catholicism.
Actually was merely a matter of political Power as stated here. No real issue on differences of spirituality or teoretichal sides. Again the islamic armies brought Power and Money and that unfortunately let to a Quick change over. Mostly of the "elite" ex.visigoth remain in reality Cristian as a way they declared themaelves, even of they were loyal to the occupant ruler.
And widegenerally, the spanish populatoon remained christian. Only the poorer as cant provide the "tax" to stay christian became muslim ti.avoid their death and of their.family. but the vast majority of iberians remaina Christian
@Sami Abdullah Al-Jaber Never in ancient times power was detached from religious matters.
Many of the leading Muslim families -like the Banu Qasi- were Visigoths originally. The Muslims brought over a cultural revolution, more than anything. It's important to observe that, nevertheless, the most developed and rich regions in the Islamic world were not Arab themselves, such as Persia or Andalusia.
It is actually more nuanced than that because the main body was comprised of Geta(non germanic population, of palasgic origin that spoke a language that was similar to latin but older) not Goths. As proof, the name of the hero king is Pelagius.
In the video it shows Spanish jews go to Athens but as a Greek I can tell you the majority of them went to Thessaloniki and transformed the city into a cosmopolitan city with flourishing economy. Their population suffered a huge blow from the holocaust and nowdays only few remain there. However you can still see their marks on the city from it's former glory.
Many of them were saved by the consul of Spain in Tesalonica who gives them the spanish nationality.
Good video, thanks for bringing a very short summary about the Reconquista so that the Anglo-Jutosaxons understand it and promote part of the history of the Iberian Peninsula.
It was full of misinformation including saying that Iberia was a Muslim majority
@Asturias Celtic He is correct. The Iberian Peninsula is believed by historians to have been muslim majority by the 10th or 11th century, before the Catholic invaders put a dent in that.
@Khalid Nope, especially the Kingdom of Asturias.
@Asturias Celtic Your evidence to the contrary is... a tiny kingdom which controlled an incredibly small portion of the peninsula. Seems you're coping.
Some also made their way to the colonies in the Americas. While remaining Christian their surnames reflected their actual ancestry, such as Salazar (Sal--son of--Azar).
The video is very good, the historical knowledge about the war is good and easy to absorb. I hope the channel grows more and more🤗🤗🤗🤗
To understand better, you have to see that the Muslims were not always United in Iberian peninsula, almoads, omiads, almoravids and kingdom Nazari and between these periods were the Taifa periods, meaning there were fragmentation of the Muslim rulers and during these periods there were internal struggles and fights and fierce battles! The periods of internal chaos during Muslim rulers were the perfect periods for the Catholic rulers take back territory, sometimes even with alliances with Muslims! These is interesting, because it shows why the Catholic rulers were in the beginning tolerate towards the Muslims!
One example of intolerance was the first conquest of Silves, in Algarve, when the Portuguese troops among with crusaders conquered the city and killed everyone inside... There were lots of crimes made during these period of Reconquista, because the killing of the population and destruction of heritage just pushed back the develop of lots cities, that were very rich economically
Excellent work, thanks
I was going to say something, but after reading some of the other comments, I realize that there are some very knowledgeable people commenting, and that I am over my head here. Since my dad taught me that it is better to keep one’s mouth shut and have people wonder about one’s state of ignorance on a given subject, than to open one’s mouth and leave no doubt about one’s ignorance. So, everyone have a nice day.
Good policy, brother. Now, I suggest you start reading history. Once you start, you never go back.
yeah man!..same here!...in over my head on this one!
Silence is golden in a situation like that🤐
It is worth noting that the expulsion of Jews from a newly unity of a few Spanish kingdoms was not a single incident of expulsion. Including Spain, there has been a total of 47 expulsions from various European kingdoms, principalities, city states and counties. Mainz for example list at least four times that Jews were expelled. The list includes England, France, Low Countries, Lithuania, Portugal, and Italian states. The motives for the expulsions are well explained in Barbara Tuchman's book titled "A Distant Mirror". I suggest that the presenter of this video read her book. The Catholic monarchs were named Fernando and Isabel; they were never Ferdinand nor Isabella; altering their names doesn't make them more intelligible. Isabel was also spelled Ysabel, and evidence of that can be seen in her last will and testament and even on the coat of arms of Puerto Rico; America's oldest coat of arms. Lastly; there is no [h] in peninsula.
Wonder y Jews were expelled so many times
Great video and very informative.
You seem viciously to ignore Portugal. The iberian peninsula accounts for three countries: Spain, Andorra AND Portugal.
They did a video on Portugal
ask the Catalans or the Basques what they think about that statement. Also, Andorra is a co-principality whose heads of state are not princes. One is in fact a bishop in nearby Catalunya (native Andorrans traditionally speak Catalan as their mother tongue). The other non-prince head of state of this co-principality is the Président de la République française. Also, ask a Spanish right-wing extremist what s/he thinks about Portugal. It might be left out of this video for a reason...
as if Andorra is a real country..
Los catalanes no pintan nada ne la historia…nunca fueron un reino, los vascos si, con Navarra, la verdadera tierra vasca, aunque no haya salido en ese mapa, no fue consultada y España nos me formó Amhara’s su unión cok Navarra en 1512 pero bueno…lleno de errores.
Portugal had moor presence, I just came back from there. Look up castelo dos mouros, located near Lisbon
Do a video about the Irish soldiers who mutated to Mexican side, and what happened after the war
As a Spanish teacher, I realized that the connection between Muslim and Moor was not grasped by my students (or me at first). Most used the terms interchangeably and few understand that Moors are Muslims hailing from Morocco.
Yes I am Moroccan, there's lot of similarities in words especially in Moroccan dialect
Sir as a history teacher what do you think about the overall History of Muslims in Spain Do you think it is misrepresented to show them as violent Barbarians who didn’t do anything good to Spain and didn’t contribute in science and architecture or literature
Or Do you think it is fairly represented I am genuinely asking I don’t know what is the history from Spanish prospective now but I am curious and what do you think about it
thats because there is a conserted effort to remove knowledge of Spain Islamic past for some reason.
@Ahmed Abdelsatarbut they did contribute without Islamic Spain none of the modern science and modern surgery we know today will ever exit and that what makes them rage quit
I was really wondering how things happened because of the game Crusader Kings. Now i know, thanks a lot!
I'm surprised that no mention was made of the Almoravids and Almohads.
This happened much after the two dynasties
Get a hold of Prof. O’Callaghan’s “History of Medieval Spain,” the definitive work in English on the Reconquista. I studied under him at university.
Thank You Rabbi, that was fascinating as always; I really didn't know that the stereotypical jew was depicted as blue eyes & red haired in the mediaeval period; having said that, I'm not surprised either.
For anyone who doesnt know, the first 5 mins of this video that the narrator calmly described encompasses 800 years of brutal war, the longest war/series of wars in human history.
Actually it was 800 years of prosperity ,,andalus was the brightest side of all Europe,,,kings sending there children and people to study there and proud if graduate from it,,music ,art peaceful for all religions living together 80% muslims 15 christianity 5% judaism
@Kuwaity Kuwait muslim propaganda
@TheBooban nope, Andalus was the most advanced civilization of the Middle Ages
@A not for Christians
@Charles Fenwick for everyone, and Christian Europe advanced when they conquered the people and knowledge of the Andalusian’s.
It would be very interesting to watch a video with reasoning of the expelings. I am sure there were more than just religious reasons.
An curious about the expulsion of the Jews as I can understand the Muslim expulsion because it was a danger due the conversion to Islam of the spanish
the ottoman empire, they were a rising powerful muslim empire in the meditaterranean, the spanish monarchs felt like it was risky to have population who could side with muslim ottomans over christian spaniards
most of the reasons would likely shock or horrify us.
In the case of Portugal, regarding the Jewish populations, the same decree was issued, either the Jews would become Catholics or they would be expelled, but what actually happened, was that the Jewish populations, when heading to the boats to leave the kingdom, they were prevented from doing so, being forced to stay in the Kingdom of Portugal and convert to Catholicism.
Illustrative documentary. Thank you
Man, my criticism to this is that you failed to even mention Asturias, where the reconquest started.
Asturians made history. 🇪🇸💪
Glorious! That section of Spanish history could totally become a videogame scenario.
It is already. You can play the Reconquista Campaign in Total War:Attila in the first DLC oder in Crusader Kings3 and the Fate of Iberia Expansion.
Medieval 2 total war
A little historical detail.
The expulsion of the moors led the spanish monarchs had a devastating economic effect but few places were more badly affect than the heart of aragon at the time. Valencia used to be the centre of aragonese politics but so
Many people left that the power base of catalonia became the capital leaving Barcelona its practical capital.
I read how many villages. We're left entirely abandoned by the expulsions and the later expulsions of the moriscos
Do not think so ... Spain sent many Spanish settlers to America, if the expulsion of Jews and Moors left Spain depopulated, how Spain and Portugal were able to send so many new settlers to populate the Americas, the Philippines, and other ultramar territories?
A comparison might be in order. The 2009 economic collapse was devastating but the US recovered and remained the foremost power in the world.
Then we can see colonies and the exploring of the new world. Expeditions weren't thousand strong.they were hundreds. Hiring native guides, colonies were concentrate in areas in which they were 100s of people. They were not universally done by states like the kingdom, they were also sometimes private ventures. Colonies often attempt self reliance, they relied also on native knowledge and collaboration. They also did rule through natives
Try to imagine the opposite if by accident or Crown disinterest, they could stay as they have been for centuries. The minimum would be now a kind of "stable state" like Bosnia and with muslims with the pathetic exigences of separate laws, separate administrations and these kind of follies (not follies bergère, of course).
@Nuno CB Nuno CB
Let us compare other medieval European states in similar situations where they lie on the broad boundaries of religious divisions.
Norman Kingdom of sicily was strong, tolerant and prosperous.
Kingdom of Poland/poland Lithuania sat between the Catholic and orthodox world and are not known for their interfaith intolerance.
The ottomans tended towards tolerance while the devshirme was a very awful practise.
The issue with bringing that into the modern day is not islam, it is religion and nationalism becoming interlinked politically
Very informative video. I met a group of moor Muslims in the US but I did not know their history. Now I am able to know who they are
*Hey knowledgia loved your all history videos from india, I want to know more about indian empires (mainly medieval history) and especially Maratha Empire's rise and fall 🔥 already watched your mauryan and Gupta empire series, plz do such on Maratha Empire(also known as India's 10th and last empire)*
@Neo Nationalist because it's important
Check Maratha History English channel. They are dedicated to Maratha Empire rise and fall along with proof
WE also need to see history of coterminous Pakistan starting from Mehr Garh, Mohenjo Daro of the Indus River Valley in Pakistan.
There is an amazing story of how the newly converted Jews of Spain who were also segregated from the rest of society for their "past" identity and miraculously those people remained Jews for centuries because of that segregation, they didn't mix at all with the locals and had these "family traditions" like not eating pork and many of those have fully returned to Judaism by now. I even met someone from Brazil who told me her family left Portugal 200 years ago and she was still halachikly Jewish even though her family had converted so long ago. Its amazing how well the Sephardic Jewish community managed to keep itself pure throughout centuries of harsh conditions.
Good video. But I saw one minor error of this. The Kingdom of Asturias (718-1833) was never conquered nor they were park of moorish Iberia.
We have to get the timeline straight to begin … when the Umayyads conquered the Iberian Peninusula, there WAS NO kingdom of Asturia. Like other regions of Iberia, the area was ruled by the Visigoths. And, the Umayyads DID conquer the whole territory. Completely. Only after some years did the rebels regroup in the mountains. THe Umayyads were already in modern France fighting their way upwards. Get your facts straight Mr. Garcia.
@Alfonso R. Great evidence you've brought. Even Spanish historians say the same. Look up Daniel Gil-Benumeya
...sem sequer falarmos do facto de a ocupação moura para norte do Mondego ter sido sempre muito fraca, era uma zona de fronteira, uma espécie de terra de ninguém.
Very informative video.Thank you
Really informative, thank you
Great video 👍
Treaties are worthless unless both sides stand to lose big if a treaty is breached. If a treaty creates a basis to further reduce power of the weaker signer, sort of "give up big to save some" (discounted defeat), the stronger signer will certainly breach it in the future.
What about the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, which is known as the Spanish Inquisition?
This was very interesting, despite the painful pronunciation of place names
Records from as late as the eleventh century show Christian towns that Muslim authorities in the taifa kingdom of Granada considered potentially subversive. The Almoravids deported many Christians en masse to North Africa to punish them or prevent their collaboration with Christian warriors of the Reconquest. As for the Almohads, they concluded that only forced conversion could take care of the multicultural problem that these suspect Christian communities posed. Some Christian churches survived in Huesca until Christian forces retook the city in 1096. Until the eleventh century a few churches and monasteries remained in the rural villages of Islamic Spain. All these details indicate a Christian culture that indeed was declining under Islamic hegemony but that nonetheless refused to die.83
this is something my family discuss often being Portuguese. 6'5" green eyes to 4'11" curly hair & all skin colors light to dark. always interesting!
That's because you have Moroccan ancestors. South Europeans and North Africans share DNA.
@المغرب الذي سيكون. and now nortyh african muslims have French paternal DNA all ur women just had so much baugette in the last 100 years you have European DNA now
Not at all, the only Moroccans with partially European DNA are the people of Northern Morocco, because most of them are Moriscos (Muslims of Iberian Peninsula) who were displaced by Catholics when they invaded Andalusia.
@المغرب الذي سيكون. that sounds like copium, FRANCE annexed morocco .algeria, tunisia for centuries and your telling me they didnt get down funky with your women? naaah i know for sure algerians are 80% French paternal DNA ..and Morisco are muslim andalusians who converted to Catholicism. you coping hard right now
Why do they always refer to the king and queen of Spain with the Italian translation of their names? It's something I have never been able to figure out. Their real names are Fernando and Isabel (Spanish), not Ferdinando and Isabella (Italian).
Bilbao was founded in 1300 AD by Diego Lopez V de Haro and both Madrid and Murcia were founded by rulers of Al-Andalus in the 9th century AD. These cities can't have existed under Visigoths' rule and, if they did, they must have had different names.
Pamplona was the capital city of Navarra not Bilbao, Toledo was the capital city of the Visigothic Kingdom, but there were older cities in the south such as Cadiz founded by the Greeks or Zaragoza in the northeast founded by the Romans! Madrid was not founded by the Muslims ...
Basqueland has nothing to do with Moors
@Antonio Rangel I don’t contest any of that. I’m just saying some cities showing up on that map in the year 700 didn’t exist. As for Madrid, it is founded by Muslims as per the following: “La primera evidencia histórica de la ciudad data del año 865, cuando el emir Muhammed I mandó construir una alcazaba en la aldea de Mayrit, a orillas del río Manzanares. Mayrit significa en árabe "abundancia de ríos de agua".
@Asturias Celtic never said it did
@Houssem Khaled you literally mention a village called "Mayrit." Which was a settlement before the Arabs came, so Madrid, by your own story preceded the Arabs, and weren't founded by them.
Edit; I looked it up, and the nearby Village was Visigothic, the Arabs build a Citadel nearby that village.
So Madrid was founded by the Visigoths,...
The Arabs build it into prominence, but the Visigoths are the oldest inhabitants of that region.
we need this today
Would be nice if any information about Portugal were included, did it happened at the same time? What causes?
Portugal was part of Al Andalus and the Visigoths. The two countries of Portugal and Spain were one in the past.
@A actually it wasn't like that, most of Portugal was under the rule of "suevos", and Bilbao was under "vascoes", while the rest of iberia was under the rule of Visigoths. Nonetheless Portugal was under Spain during 1580-1640 a completely different period.
They didn't drink wine... they didn't eat pork... they had to go.
@Filipe David Portugal was not under Spain in 1580, the moment it was Portugal took independence.
@A that is false
You don't know what you're talking about
When you realize that the Visigoth Kingdom was basically the closest that Iberia was to being united
there was a short time where portugal was occoupied by spain and also under the visigoths the peninsula was in fact united
@Naughtius Maximus Portugal was never occupied by Spain
Nah, Hispania was first. And Visigoth kingdom shared the peninsule with Suevi one mostly of their time.
@Suri S. oh right, and also the byzantine province of hispania
@Tcb bct again It was. Ever heard of the Portuguese restoration war?
The moors never had complete control over the entire Spanish peninsula; at its peak, the moors ruled probably a little over 75% of the land for a stint of time.
Portuguese Kingdom also faught the Muslim Moors Invasion from the North to the South Regions of Portugal: Alentejo and Algarve. Both regions have Arabic names. The South was occupied for longer time so it was much more inflenced by it. All names of Cities and Regions in Portugal that start with "Al" are Arabic: Alentejo, Almograve, Alandroal, Algarve, etc. That influence is shown also in Culture (Food, Art, Architecture, etc) and pretty sure in DNA too. People in South Portugal and South Spain are much more tanned than people in the North. We could easily blend in North African Countries (Marocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lybia, Egypt) or Greece, Turkey, Israel, etc. Much more than in England, Germany, Slavic Countries, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Russia, etc.
One of the things most Muslim ruled countries do is charge people of other religions a fee to be able to keep practicing their religion. This still goes on. Not being Muslim in a Muslim country can, and does, affect your business. Muslims are more likely to do business with other Muslims. Even if the non Muslim has better prices, makes a better product, or does better work. It is basically normal behavior. There was a brief documentary about a family in Indonesia that had held out for generations but was going to “convert” because of the economic pressure. That was likely the reason for so many fairly quick conversions to Islam in Spain and Portugal. I doubt that over those centuries that many of the indigenous males married outside of their ethnicity. Females would go with their Semitic (Arabs and Jews are semitic) or black African spouses or masters.
That history I was already familiar with. But, what happened to north African Christianity? What mix of voluntary and forced conversions, flight and expulsions ended it? Before the Islamic conquest north Africa had been largely Christian.
He didn't mentioned one of the biggest reasons why al andalus failed the taifas who were fighting each other instead of fighting their enemies because of them the Muslims lost the majority of the big cities and he called the Muslims invaders like the visigdos were the natives of Iberia
To be fair, the Visigoths were much easier to melt with the natives than the Muslims. They were romanized l, kept up Roman traditions, and even abandoned their language and religion later on.
It's simple. The native Iberians saw Celts as invaders.
The Celt-Iberians saw the Romans as invaders.
The Hispano-Romans saw the Visigoths as invaders
The Visigothic Hispanians saw the Moors as invaders.
The Moors were however expelled and so we are left with the final POV: Visigoth native vs Moorish invader.
Had it been 3 centuries earlier and the Visigoths were kicked out, we'd remember today of the brave men that pushed out the Visigothic invaders.
Iberia is a land of invaders, "indigenous" is an hard term to use because we are descendant of all the invasions and settlments of the peninsula.
If you want hard and literal indegenous peoples of modern Spain, I'd say the Basque people, who even predate the Iberian peoples, are the ones.
@Miguel Padeiro The Iberians didn’t see the celts as invaders, it was more like a migration than invasion, even if they encompassed the entire peninsula. They actually intermingled and created a mixed culture called Celt-Iberian in the middle.
At first, the hispano-Romans saw the Visigoths as liberators from the tribes that settled there and the declining Roman Empire that had a shit economy. They actually sided with the Visigoths because they paid way less taxes under them, in fact they barely did. It was their religion that was a problem, which they saw as heretical.
It took some time for the Visigoths to melt into the native population but they eventually dropped their gothic language, religion, and made some progressive laws that United them together, which actually helped with the reconquista in a way since they were intertwined.
The moors were kicked out because the Spanish saw their culture and them as alien. The Visigoths were already romanized and actually maintained Roman institutions, it makes sense because the Visigoths had endless Roman contact from the East to West since the time of Constantine. Maybe a little before that.
Majority of modern Iberians make up the celtic and Iberian tribes that settled in the peninsula based on dna tests. The rest are from the Visigoths/Suebi, North Africans, etc.
@Agothy dead wrong. People don't change language through peaceful means. The celts couldn't have made people speak their language through peaceful means
@Mohamed Ramadan Some can, like the aforementioned Visigoths who switched from gothic to Latin, and so did the celts somewhat. Celtic (the Iberian celtic languages) and Latin sound so similar either way, it’s probably why they dropped it all together. Keep in mind that celts have blended in with the Iberians at that point too.
I'm one minute in and it's already Game of Thrones source material, love it
Viscoths were among the 3 horns that were uprooted by the horn that had mouth like aman, the first beast
8:37 The problem is that they prevented them from leaving the Andalus
The lesson to be learned from this war is basically treat people like you want to be treated.
Muslim majority countries says that is blasphemy.
Thankyou you help me alot with my exams 😃🙌❣💯
I live in Andalusia and never knew where the name came from, if you travel in the Las Alpujarras there are still churches with the Star of David and the Muslim crescent side by side.
El nombre proviene de los Vándalos, una tribu germana que fundó un reino en el norte de África, llegando desde el sur de Hispania. Por eso esa zona era conocida como la tierra de los (v)ándalos.
Most people who live in Andalusia don't know anything about Al-Andalus history. They erased that part of your history. Despite it represents more than seven centuries. So unfortunate.
I find that extremely sad. It's like saying "I live in Italy, what does the Roman empire mean?"
@ThePunisher014 it was much less, a foreign state on our land is not something to hold pride in
I love when they completely ignore Portugal and consider Spain as the whole peninsula.
Hispania was indeed the whole peninsula and Lusitania one of its parts
@Gabriel NA Yes, under the Roman empire.
There was no Spain yet during the Reconquista. The term Hispania or “España” applied to the whole peninsula.
In Castilian (also known as Spanish), the whole peninsula was referred to as “Las Españas” , before Spain came to exist as a unified country
"Portuguese" identity did not exist. They all consider themselves Hispaniola people.
@SmashBrosBrawl Tell that to a Portuguese
Great video. Can you please mention the TIME of these events? It's important for getting oriented.
From 711 to 1609
@Gabriel NA Thanks for that.
@Gabriel NA 1492
@Neyou 1492 was the year of the conquest of Granada (and the end of the reconquista), but 1609 was the true ending of the whole period of the islamic Spain, when the last descendants of the muslims (now converted as christians) were expelled from Spain
this doc left a very important detail out of the story. interesting.
They were mostly local Roman-Iberians and Goths, they adopted Islam and Christianity several times throw all those centuries, just like they left paganism, they left Christianity, and Islam after that to become Christians again.
Correct. The most accurate and simple explanation is always the one people ignore
True, ruling class and the common people, don't have to share same religion values (or grade of fanaticism) and ethnicity. I think for a lot of people back then changing religion was more a pragmatical decision than a faith one, changing or not religion can make you avoid/add dangers or make better/worst in live.
But when it comes to egypt and others who are so called "ARAB Countries" you say that arabs have replaced the indigenous population? Why the double standards?
@OneAndOnlyOne Maybe you mistake Arab the language, Arab the culture and Arab the ethnicity. I have Moroccan friends and they really get offended if you call them arabs specially one that is amazig. In the case of Egypt, polititians as Nasser did a great effort to mix the Arab label with Egypt. I dont think is double standard, is more a question of being precise.
@OneAndOnlyOne They did in those places because they were closer and stayed for longer. Anyway, most of the North Africans are still Berbers for example... It really depends where.
Thanks for your videos. But the reconquist Maps are incorrect, Santander was not conquered until 1068. I recommend the arábic Maps that are in German universities
Would someone be able to tell me what mapping software they are using? plz
Pelayo, the first Crhistian King of the Reconquista was named chief of the rebelds in the mountains of Asturias in the North of Spain afer he rebeled against the muslim invaders.
He was the son of one of the commanders/kignight of the last visigoth King-of-Hispania; King Witizza.
Pelayo was declared "princep" by his men in the old celticiberian ritual, as he was not visigoth, but a hispanic. Hispanics at that time were romanized celtic-iberians. And had both, crhistian faith and old pagan customs. In those times visigoth society and hispánica society were quite separated, but visigoth ended completly integrated in hispanic society as muslims invaded. The rule of the visigoths ended because after 40 generations of visigoth kings, they could not hold Hispania united anymore, and lost it to the muslim invaders.
Therfore Pelayo, as everything was lost, set the example himself and started the Reconquista. A war crussade that lasted 600 years until completly won.
Spaniards not only took back their lands, later they also conquered North África in revange, and defeted the Otoman Empire in the Massive Levanto Battle, defending Italy and Greece.
We know there was a previous attempt of invasion a few years before that failed. We know that Tariq had deals with Julian, described as some sort of byzantine lord of Ceuta that was a vassal of the Visigoth crown, old accounts state that he plotted against Roderic (they argue that Roderic raped his daughter) and we know that in Guadalete battle, a relevant number of Roderic’s horsemen switched sides and joined the Berber invaders. Roderic was not a very popular king.
So the most obvious hypothesis is that Tariq arrived pretending to be a mercenary in support of Roderic’s rivals. But of course, Muslim had their own agenda.
The Muslim indeed made a lot of very friendly agreements initially to secure their power that allowed them to seize most of the land but very soon, once they thought their position was secured, they began to break them.
They didn’t join the Berbers rather left the battlefield, and Visigoth kingdom was on the verge of civil war. Musa the commander of Tariq got a sniff of this and tested the Iberia front. The force Tariq arrived with was literally 300 Arabs and 8000-10K loyal Berbers from Tariq’s tribe.
I love the history of my country Spain, we have a unique culture derived from all these peoples I myself know first hand that I descend from Moriscos because one of my surnames Bonillo which comes from Arabic "buna el lah" which means "impressive fortification"
The people who ruin our heritage are the bigots on both sides, Spanish bigots who renounce all Muslim influence and heritage of Spain and her people and Muslim bigots who seem to have idealised Al-Andalus and think that modern Spaniards don't bare any kind of relationship to them as if the majority of Spanish Muslims did not stay and convert leaving their descendants in Spain to mix with the Christians giving birth to a unique culture in the West which is very influenced by them
_“as if the majority of Spanish Muslims did not stay and convert leaving their descendants in Spain to mix…”_
Does this 👉 7:26 mean nothing?
@Khaliil bin Ammar there were between 6 and 8 million people in the Iberian Peninsula in the 11th century and 85% of those were Muslim, by the 17th century the estimates say there were 300,000 Spanish Muslims which is what 7:26 is talking about, those were the ones "expelled" and we know that not all left and quite a lot of them came back shortly after with help from their Christian neighbours who were happy to see them again
All the rest had converted to Christianity in time as more and more Muslim domains fell under Christian control
This video is full of vague descriptions and does not tell the full story
There are thousands of people with Spanish last name in North África and Turkey
And no one expected the Spanish inquisition
Contrary to popular belief, “in no other place within the Islamic empire was the influence of Islamic clerics on daily life as strong as in al-Andalus” (Fernandez-Morera 2016, 91).
Within the Iberian Peninsula, the highest Muslim presence was in Andalucia, which by the way means "the land of the Vandals" due to the kingdom that the Vandals founded there!
This form of conversion has happened, worldwide, forever!
never again, for ever!
nice going Spain. congrats
Funny how Portugal, despite being part of the Iberian peninsula, was completely ignored in this video lol, there is no doubt it is a region of Spain hahahahaha
Portuguese will be triggered if they read this
@Geert Wilders The Portuguese have been Spaniards many times, it depends on who is King or Queen
Portugal as a nation is far older then Spain though
@Knight Heaven true. And the one time the Portuguese crown fell on the head of Spanish monarchs, it was under a personal union. Hence the Portuguese never got to be Spanish.
I have to say that the Spanish Mediterranean side is plenty of vigilant towers from north to south because the Muslims pirates and the Turkish danger. So the slow expulsion was to avoid Turkish power in the Mediterranean and in Spain, that's something I don't see in your video, the most is well done 👍🏻thanks
Good video :)
I took a DNA test a few years ago and I got a 4% north african dna plus an additional 3% arabian peninsula. Both my parents are from north-western Spain
Almost all southern Europeans and some northern European will have some middle eastern DNA.
My family is from Asturias. Zero of that stuff. NOT EVEN LISTED..High percentage of Neantherdal DNA which makes sense because people from Asturias are ancient and from cave men mixed with celts.
@Gale Sal Nope
@Asturias Celtic Cool. That's you and some of your family members. But if you look up Asturian 23andMe results, you will see that many will have the middle eastern component. It's nothing to be ashamed of.
@Gale Sal I took mine with LivingDNA because they are based in the UK and european data protection is stronger, then brexit happened so god knows what will be of my genetic info lol.
Still recommend though, coherent and precise results for me and my family members, north african and ME dna always present around the 5% mark. I don't find that surprising at all and in fact it seems to be quite common. Whether that's because of Al Andalus or some previous migration I can't tell, but it sure looks you're right here, Gale.
One important fact that hasn’t been mentioned in your presentation is that the Northern region of Asturias was never conquered by the Muslim. In fact that’s the region where the “re-conquest” of Iberia begun to develop.
Please tell what happened to the Hindus of afghanisthan(Taksheela, Gandhar) , of pakistan(Sindh) and Kashmir.
Would love to listen that
Good video, greetings from Huelva - Spain, This confirms the genetic studies of the little Arab genetic heritage in Spain, in short I believe that many Germanic tribes not only colonized Spain but also the western part of Europe, the Visigoths did not have genetic studies Blue eyes were not blond, they looked more like the Iberians of today, that characteristic is more typical of the Slavic peoples.
Pepe, the Visigoths, who were a part of the Goths, are credited with a Scandinavian origin. Although the only sure thing is that they were of north-Germanic origin. If you look at the names of the kings, these names are of Germanic origin. Like Ataulf (Aþawulfs).
@Fran I do not doubt that the Germans have Scandinavian genes, because these peoples have emigrated a lot, although from genetic studies we know that the Scandinavians are not Europeans, they are not in the R1b halogroup that corresponds to Europeans. It seems that they are tribes coming from the Russian steppes.
@Fran Looking at it in perspective and comparing it with the Star Trek universe, the Spanish could be the Romulans and the Germans the Vulcans.
@Pepe Gotera What variant, are we talking about the M269? I say this because Haplogroup R1b generated variants on several continents.
Visigoths brought I1,R1a and northern subclades of R1b there is no facial reconstruction to confirm that the Goths from scandinavia looked like Iberians
Have any of you heard of library of cordoba and other libraries around the andalus? ))